December 07-13, 2011

The following reports are provided courtesy of the Smithsonian’s Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey’s Volcano Hazards Program.

You can view their full reports with loads of additional background information at


GALERAS Colombia 1.22°N, 77.37°W; summit elev. 4276 m

INGEOMINAS reported that activity continued at Galeras during 7-13 December, with steam rising from the main crater and two craters to the N and SW (Paisita and Chavas, respectively). On 9 and 11 December earthquakes ofM 2.3 and 2.5, felt by local residents, occurred near the crater at a depth of 1.5 km. The Alert Level remains at III (Yellow; “changes in the behavior of volcanic activity”). olcanic activity”).

Source: Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (INGEOMINAS)


GAMALAMA Halmahera 0.80°N, 127.33°E; summit elev. 1715 m

Based on information from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7-10 December ash plumes from Gamalama rose to altitudes of 2.1-6.1 km (7,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. The Alert Level for Gamalama remains at 3 (on a scale from 1-4).

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


SORIKMARAPI Sumatra (Indonesia) 0.686°N, 99.539°E; summit elev. 2145 m

CVGHM reported increased seismicity from Sorik Marapi during 1-12 December and white plumes rose 40-50 m above the summit. CVGHM raised the Alert Level on 12 December from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) based on seismic data.

Source: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM


SUNDORO Central Java (Indonesia) 7.30°S, 109.992°E; summit elev. 3136 m

CVGHM reported increased seismic activity at Sundoro during October -4 December. On 26 November and 2 December smoke was reported from many fumaroles around the summit crater. Based on visual and seismic data, CVGHM raised the Alert Level from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 5 December.

Source: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM)


TUNGURAHUA Ecuador 1.467°S, 78.442°W; summit elev. 5023 m

IG reported that during 7-8 December activity continued at Tungurahua and roaring noises and sounds resembling “cannon shots” were heard. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-4.0 km (4,920-16,400 ft) drifting W and NE on 7 December, and W and SW on 8 December. Ashfall was reported in communities to the W, NE, and SW. On 8 December ashfall was reported in Choglontús (SW), Chacauco, Manzano (8 km SW), Bilbao (8 km W), and Pillate (8 km W). Crater incandescence was observed on 10 December, but activity decreased during 10-11 December.

Based on pilot and satellite observations, the Washington VAAC reported that during 7-8 December ash plumes from Tungurahua rose to altitudes of 7.0-7.9 km (23,000 -26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 18.5-24.0 km S and SW.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


DUKONO Halmahera 1.68°N, 127.88°E; summit elev. 1335 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 December an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 74 km SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


FUEGO Guatemala 14.473°N, 90.880°W; summit elev. 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that on 9 and 13 December explosions from Fuego produced rumbling sounds and ashplumes that rose 300-600 m above the crater and drifted W, SW, and S. Block avalanches descended the SW flank toward the Ceniza drainage.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


HIERRO Canary Islands (Spain) 27.73°N, 18.03°W; summit elev. 1500 m

Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported that during 7-13 December the submarine eruption continued S of El Hierro Island, with steaming lava fragments sporadically observed floating on the sea. During this period, the mean tremor amplitude oscillated between decreasing and increasing trends during the first days of the week, and since 10 December high-amplitude pulses occurred every 5-10 minutes.

Only seven seismic events were located during this period, most of them offshore to the N of the island at depths of 17-23 km and with a maximum magnitude of 2.0. GPS data analyses showed stability in the horizontal components and trends to deflation in the vertical component.

Source: Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN)


KARYMSKY Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) 54.05°N, 159.45°E; summit elev. 1536 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity continued at a moderate level at Karymsky during 2-9 December and indicated that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.6 km (11,800 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery showed a daily thermal anomaly and ash plumes that drifted 90 km E on 3, 7, and 8 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. Based on information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 13 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.0 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


KILAUEA Hawaii (USA) 19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m

During 7-13 December, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea’s Halema’uma’u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and freshspatter nearby.

Incandescence was visible along the E and W edges of the Pu’u ‘O’o crater floor, along the 21 September fissure on the SE flank of Pu’u ‘O’o cone, and from a skylight on the lava tube. Lava continues to erupt into the perched pond formed on 6 December. Pahoehoe flows, fed through lava tubes from the fissure, continued to be active about 6.8 km SE of Pu’u ‘O’o based on intermittent views from satellite. Analysis of 10-12 December satellite images suggested that lava had reached the coast and was flowing into the ocean. During 11-12 December incandescence was observed from small spatter cones on the E and S edges of the Pu’u ‘O’o crater floor; short lava flows issued from the E edge of the crater floor on 12 December.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


KIZIMEN Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) 55.130°N, 160.32°E; summit elev. 2376 m

KVERT reported an increase in seismic activity at Kizimen during 2-9 December and a daily thermal anomaly that was detected in satellite images. A large lava flow on the NE and E flanks continued to effuse. The video camera was down due to technical reasons during the week. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)




POPOCATEPETL México 19.023°N, 98.622°W; summit elev. 5426 m

CENAPRED reported that during 7-13 December steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl and occasionally contained small amounts of ash. On 7 December ashfall was reported in San Pedro (13.5 km NW). Crater incandescence was observed during 9-11 December and on 9 December incandescence ballistic fragments were observed on the upper slopes of the cone.

Based on reports from CENEPRED and the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported an ash plume that drifted 12.9 km W on 7 December.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


PUYEHUE-CORDON CAULLE Central Chile 40.590°S, 72.117°W; summit elev. 2236 m

Based on seismicity during 7-13 December, OVDASSERNAGEOMIN reported that the eruption from the Cordón Caulle rift zone, part of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex, continued at a low level. Plumes observed with the web camera during 8-9 December rose 3.0-3.5 km above the crater and plumes were identified in satellite imagery drifting 90 km SE on 8 December and 250 km ENE on 9 December. Cloud cover prevented web camera and satellite observations during 10-13 December, but ashfall was reported to the E during 10-11 December. The Alert Level remained at Red.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)


SAKURA-JIMA Kyushu 31.585°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 7-13 December explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.0-2.7 km (3,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, S, and NE. Satellite imagery and a pilot report showed ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l and drifted 46 km SW on 9 December and 37 km S on 13 December.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


SANTA MARIA Guatemala 14.756°N, 91.552°W; summit elev. 3772 m

INSIVUMEH reported that on 9 December plumes from Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex rose 300 m above the crater and drifted SW and explosions generated rumbling noises. On 13 December block avalanche activity increased on the S flank and created pyroclastic flows that were deposited into the San Isidro drainage.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)


SHIVELUCH Central Kamchatka (Russia) 56.653°N, 161.360°E; summit elev. 3283 m

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity was detected at Shiveluch during 2-9 December, and satellite imagery showed a daily thermal anomaly over the lava dome. Ground-based observers noted that a viscous lava flow continued to effuse in the crater formed during a 2010 eruption. Moderate fumarolic activity at the lava domewas observed during 3-6 December; clouds prevented observations on the other days of the week. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)


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